The aim of this article is to present a comprehensive review of eye-tracking measures and discuss different application areas of the method of eye tracking in the field of aviation.
Background: Psychophysiological measures such as eye tracking in pilots are useful for detecting fatigue or high-workload conditions, for investigating motion sickness and hypoxia, or for assessing display improvements and expertise.
We review the uses of eye tracking on pilots and include eye-tracking studies published in aviation journals, with both a historical and contemporary view. We include 79 papers and assign the results to the following three categories: Human performance, aircraft design, health and physiological factors affecting performance. We then summarize the different uses of eye tracking in each category and highlight metrics which turned out to be useful in each area. Our review is complementary to that of Ziv (2016).
On the basis of these analyses, we propose useful application areas for the measurement of eye tracking. Eye tracking has the potential to be effective in terms of preventing errors or injuries by detecting, for example, fatigue or performance decrements. Applied in an appropriate manner in simulated or real flight it can help to ensure optimal functioning of man–machine systems.
Further aviation psychology and aerospace medicine research will benefit from measurement of eye movements.